Professor Susskind starts with the topic of rotations, showing that particles under rotation by 2π either return to their initial state (wavefunction) or to their initial wavefunction multiplied by a phase of -1. The first case corresponds to bosons and the second to fermions. He then uses this difference to show that bosons contribute positively to vacuum energy and fermions contribute negatively.
- Rotation of particles with spin
- Fermions and bosons
- Contributions to vacuum energy
- Do fermions and bosons come in pairs?